By Gordon C. Oates
Layout and R&D engineers and scholars will price the great, meticulous assurance during this quantity. starting with the elemental rules and ideas of aeropropulsion combustion, chapters discover particular procedures, obstacles, and analytical tools as they endure on part layout.
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Since it represents a minor heat release factor, this final blowout point is of secondary interest. Ignition By definition, ignition is possible only for those fuel-air mixture conditions within the flammability limits. The entire region within the flammability limits must be further divided into two subregions separated by the spontaneous ignition temperature (SIT). This parameter is usually determined using a standardized test procedure in which a liquid fuel is dropped into an open-air container heated to a known temperature.
For heavy fuels, the minimum occurs closer to ~ = 2. Other important variables include the initial mixture temperature and pressure. 0 I I c2~ / i I / C4 o c6/~4 . 0 EQUIVALENCE RATIO Fig. 20 Minimum ignition energies (from Ref. 28). fuel vaporization is vital to ignition characteristics. Rao and Lefebvre 27 have shown that the liquid fuel droplet diameter has a powerful influence on the minimum ignition energy. 6 Jet Fuels Combustion Characteristics The most fundamental of all fuel characteristics is the heat of combustion or heating value.
SIT decreases rapidly until approximately 2 atm, with apparently small changes above this pressure. 2° Above the spontaneous ignition temperature, the key combustion characteristic is the ignition delay time. This parameter is defined as the time lag for a given fuel-air mixture to achieve significant reaction. Zero time may be defined as the incidence of initial mixing (as in a flow reactor) or of near-instantaneous heating (as in a shock tube). 5 Spontaneous Ignition Temperatures (from Ref. 20) Fuel SIT (K) Fuel SIT (K) Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane 767 678 558 534 496 491 479 Decane Hexadecane Isooctane Kerosene (JP-8 or Jet A) JP-3 JP-4 JP-5 481 478 691 501 511 515 506 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMBUSTION 35 100 P=IO atm.
Aerothermodynamics of Aircraft Engine Components (Pandora Books) by Gordon C. Oates